The Remarkable Scientific Accuracy of Psalm 139



For you created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother’s womb. I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made; your works are wonderful, I know that full well.

– Psalm 139:13–14

Psalm 139 has been on my mind quite a bit lately. Maybe it’s because I have recently written a couple of articles about the incredible design of human pregnancy—design that highlights just how fearfully and wonderfully human beings are made.

Posting these articles to my Facebook page prompted one of my Facebook friends, Eric, to ask a thought-provoking question:

“Psalm 139:13 says God ‘knit’ us in our mother’s womb. This sounds a lot to me like DNA replication. Is this reading science into the text?”

Given the importance of DNA replication to embryological development and the specific features of the replication process, I understand why Eric would want to make that comparison. While I think that there are passages in Scripture that anticipate (even predict) scientific discoveries, I don’t see Psalm 139 referring to DNA replication. (By the way, I appreciate Eric’s caution about reading science into the text.)

Having said that, I do think that the description of God knitting each one of us together in our mother’s womb is an apt analogy for the process of embryological development at the cellular level, because both knitting and development are predicated on forethought and rely on a special type of information—qualities that reflect the activity of an Intelligent Agent.

An Overview of Embryo Growth and Development

Embryological development begins the moment the egg cell (oocyte) becomes fertilized by a sperm cell, yielding a zygote. In turn, the zygote undergoes several rounds of cell division (referred to as cleavage) to produce a berry-like structure, called a morula. All of this happens by the third or fourth day of pregnancy.

Over the next couple of days, the morula undergoes changes that characterize the process of embryogenesis. In addition to undergoing growth and division, cells in the morula begin to migrate relative to one another to form a structure with a hollow sphere called a blastula. Within the sphere is a clump of cells called the inner cell mass.

scientific-accuracy-of-psalm-139-1The next stage in embryogenesis sees the inner cell mass transform into a stack of three cellular layers (called germ layers) through cell growth, division, and migration. At this stage, the embryo is referred to as the gastrula.

The specific cell layers of the gastrula are labeled: (1) the ectoderm, (2) the mesoderm, and (3) the endoderm. Each of these cell layers is fated to develop into different organ systems in the body. The ectoderm forms the nervous system and the epidermis of the skin. The mesoderm forms muscles, the skeletal system, blood and blood vessels, and the dermis of the skin. The endoderm forms the linings of the digestive and respiratory systems, and organs that comprise the digestive system, such as the liver and pancreas.

After gastrulation, the next stage involves organ formation. Organogenesis begins in each of the individual cell layers and involves the careful orchestration of several processes, including cell growth, cell division, cell-to-cell communication, cell migration, differentiation of cells into specialized types, secretion of extracellular materials, and even cell death (which is necessary to sculpt the tissues and organs).

These cellular processes are directed by the complex interplay between gene networks within the cells (with genes turning on and off) and chemical gradients produced from materials secreted by the cells. Some scientists think that bioelectric fields generated by the cells of the developing embryo also direct embryogenesis.1 The patterns formed by the chemical gradients and bioelectric fields direct the movements, differentiation, and behavior of the embryonic cells. Still, the scientific community is unclear what ultimately determines the chemical gradient and bioelectric field patterns. To put it another way, while scientists are beginning to understand the role that chemical gradients and bioelectric fields play in development, they have no idea where the instructions ultimately come from that direct individual cells in the developing embryo to contribute to and, in turn, respond to the chemical gradients and bioelectric fields that guide embryonic development.

Perhaps the problem has to do with the fact that the scientific community views embryogenesis from a strictly materialistic/naturalistic framework. But what if embryo development were to be examined from a creation model vantage point?

Embryological Development and the Case for Intelligent Design

Remarkably, the instructions for embryogenesis appear to be instantiated in the cells that make up the developing embryo. From a creation model perspective, these instructions must come from a Mind, because instructions are a form of information (specifically, algorithmic information) and common experience teaches that algorithms emanate from a Mind. Toward that end, origin-of-life researchers Paul Davies and Sara Walker recently acknowledged that currently there is no evolutionary explanation for algorithmic information instantiated in living matter.2

Another reason to think that embryological development stems from a Creator’s involvement relates to the foresight required to formulate the instructions so that they lead to the desired outcome for embryogenesis. Evolutionary processes do not have foresight. Foresight also reflects the work of a Mind. If these instructions are flawed for even a single cell during the early stages of development, the consequences would be disastrous, with the offspring turning into a “developmental monster,” compromised in its capacity to survive and reproduce. To put it differently, it is hard to envision how evolutionary processes could generate the algorithmic information needed for embryogenesis through trial and error, without the benefit of foresight.

To help make this point clear, consider the analogy between embryogenesis and the routine performed by cheerleaders during a competition.3 Throughout the performance, each cheerleader has a specific set of movements and actions she will perform. Before the performance, her coach instructs her in exactly what to do, when to do it, and where to do it on the mat. Her individual movements and actions are different from every other team member, but when performed in conjunction with her teammates (who have their own set of instructions), the outcome can be dazzling. All this is possible, because the coach choreographed the routine ahead of the performance, with an eye toward how the routine would unfold at different stages of the performance. That is, the routine was intelligently designed with the benefit of the coach’s foresight and that design was implemented through the instructions given to each girl. If not for the coach’s foresight and instructions, chaos would ensue during the performance as each girl did whatever seemed right to her at the time.

In like manner, during embryogenesis, each cell harbors a set of instructions that tell it: (1) what chemicals and how much of these materials to secrete to establish the gradients needed to guide development, (2) when to reproduce, (3) when and where to migrate, (4) when to differentiate, (5) when and what materials to secrete to form the extracellular matrix, and (6) when to die. In a sense, the cells are like cheerleaders. And the process of embryological development is akin to the choreography of a cheer routine. The only difference: the choreography of embryological development is much more complex, elaborate, and sophisticated.

As with cheerleading, someone must give the cells instructions ahead of time with the end goal of embryological development in view. And I see that “someone” as the Creator.

Knit Together in the Womb

I also find “knitting” an apt metaphor for embryological development. My mother is an avid knitter. And whenever I watch her knit, I can’t help but recognize the similarities to a cheer routine. Knitting consists of a choreography, of sorts. Someone who knits a sweater has a final product in mind before she even picks up needles and chooses the yarn. Making use of a set of instructions—algorithmic information—that tells her which yarn to use and which knitting strokes to employ, she performs a series of actions that will eventually lead to the final product, though what that product is may not be evident at the instant those actions are performed, at least to the uninitiated.

In this context, it is intriguing that David, the author of Psalm 139, would describe embryological development as a knitting process. David writes,

“Your eyes saw my unformed body; all the days ordained for me were written in your book before one of them came to be.”

– Psalm 139:16

In light of what we have learned about embryological development, I find the scientific prescience of Psalm 139 remarkable.



  1. Michael Levin, “Bioelectric Mechanisms in Regeneration: Unique Aspects and Future Perspectives,” Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 20 (July 2009): 543–56, doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.04.013.
  2. Sara Imari Walker and Paul C. W. Davies, “The Algorithmic Origins of Life,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10 (February 2013): doi:10.1098/rsif.2012.0869.
  3. One of my daughters was a competitive cheerleader. Before she started, if you would have asked me, “Are cheerleaders athletes?” I would have laughed. But after spending several years around cheerleaders, I am truly impressed with their athleticism. In short, cheerleaders are amazing athletes.
Reprinted with permission by the author
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Recent Insights into Morning Sickness Bring Up New Evidence for Design



“A woman giving birth to a child has pain because her time has come; but when her baby is born she forgets the anguish because of her joy that a child is born into the world.”
–John 16:21
There is no end to a mother’s love. Most willingly sacrifice and even suffer for their children’s sake. And for many women, this suffering starts in the early days of their pregnancies.

Somewhere between 50% to 70% of women experience morning sickness—nausea, vomiting, and disgust toward certain foods—beginning near the onset of their pregnancies, and continuing for 2 to 3 months into the second trimester.

Interestingly, no other mammal experiences morning sickness. It is a uniquely human trait. This has prompted anthropologists and biomedical scientists to ask, why does morning sickness only occur in humans?

What Causes Morning Sickness?

As Christians, it might be tempting to view morning sickness as part of the curse—the increased pain in childbirth—described in Genesis 3:16–17.

Many anthropologists think that it is an epiphenomenon—a nonfunctional byproduct of humanity’s evolutionary origin. These scientists argue that morning sickness results from the genetic incompatibility between the mother and fetus that leads to a conflict for resources, causing the mother to become ill.

But, in recent years, scientists have identified another explanation for morning sickness, dubbed the prophylaxis hypothesis. They view nausea, vomiting, and disgust toward certain foods as a protective mechanism that keeps both mother and fetus healthy during the initial critical phase of embryonic development.

Recent work provides new support for this hypothesis,1 and, along with it, gives added insight to the biblical idea that as human beings we are fearfully and wonderfully made (Psalm 139:14). Support for the prophylaxis hypothesis also has pro-life implications.

What Is the Purpose of Morning Sickness?

The prophylaxis hypothesis gains support from several observations. First, there are correlations between morning sickness and both reduced incidences of miscarriages and elevated birth weights.

As it turns out, only certain foods trigger nausea and vomiting and serve as the objects of disgust during the first trimester of pregnancy: namely, meats, poultry, eggs, strongly flavored vegetables, and some fruit. These foods are the most likely to harbor pathogens and dietary toxins that can interfere with embryological development (teratogens). Along these lines, it is interesting that the incidence of morning sickness varies from culture to culture, most likely because of dietary differences.

The timing of morning sickness also supports the prophylaxis hypothesis. During the first trimester, the mother’s immune system is suppressed. The genetic differences between mother and fetus makes this suppression necessary. Because the fetus is only 50% genetically identical to the mother, her body treats the fetus as foreign and would otherwise attack it, if it wasn’t for the suppression of her immune system.

Immunosuppression is maximal during the first trimester, leaving both the mother and fetus vulnerable to infection. By the second trimester, the mother’s immunosuppression becomes localized to the interface between the mother and fetus. It is during this time that the developing child’s immune system begins to form. The fetus also enjoys protection from the mother’s antibodies that are transferred to the fetus via the placenta.

The first trimester is also critical because this is when organ development begins in the fetus. At this juncture in development, the fetus is highly vulnerable to infectious agents and reproductive toxins found in fruits and vegetables.

There is also another role that morning sickness and disgust toward certain foods play in the early stages of pregnancy: calorie restriction for the mother. It is counterintuitive, but limiting the caloric intake benefits the pregnancy by inhibiting tissue synthesis in the mother. When calories are few, anabolic pathways shut down. This allows nutrients to be devoted to placental formation.

Why Does Morning Sickness Only Occur in Humans?

Researchers think that morning sickness in humans stems from our wide-ranging diet. Most mammals have highly specialized diets. Because of this, their immune systems can readily target the pathogens most likely to be found in the foods they eat. They can also make use of specialized enzymes to detoxify the teratogens most likely to be found in the foods they eat. This type of specialized protection isn’t feasible in humans, in fact, it might not even be possible at all, because our diets are so wide-ranging—varying from region to region around the world. Unlike most mammal species, humans literally occupy every corner of the planet. And this capability requires us to eat all sorts of foods. Given our highly varied diet, the most efficient and effective way to protect the mother and fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy is through nausea, vomiting, and disgust toward potentially harmful foods—unpleasant as these experiences might be.

Morning Sickness as Evidence for the Christian Faith

Though some biologists have argued that morning sickness is an epiphenomenon that emerged as the byproduct of human evolution, the data indicates otherwise. Morning sickness and disgust toward certain foods plays a critical function in an healthy pregnancy by protecting both the mother and the developing child. As a Christian, I see morning sickness as one more elegantly designed facet of human pregnancy.

I also see it as affirming key passages of Scripture. Instead of seeing morning sickness as support for Genesis 3:16–17, I view it as deepening the meaning of passages in Psalm 139describing each of us as being fearfully and wonderfully made. This latest insight about the benefit of morning sickness also expands my perspective of the idea from Psalm 139 that God has knit each of us together in our mother’s womb.

I also see this insight relating to the command God gave us in Genesis 1 to multiply and fill the earth. To do so would require that we would be able to thrive in a wide range of habitats, demanding that we are capable of consuming a highly varied diet. And of course, this is where morning sickness plays a vital role. For humans to increase in number, while we fill the world, requires a prophylactic mechanism (such as morning sickness) to ensure healthy pregnancies.

On a side note: The prophylaxis hypothesis also points to human exceptionalism. In contrast to our the highly varied diets, Neanderthals consumed a much more limited range of food. In fact, these differences in dietary practices likely reflect differences in the cognitive capacities of modern humans and Neanderthals. It is no accident that Neanderthals had a limited biogeographical distribution, confined to Europe, Western Asia, and the Middle East. In fact, Neanderthals’ limited diet may well have contributed to their extinction.

Pro-Life Implications

This work also has implications for the pro-life debate. I have often heard pro-choice advocates argue that abortion is not murder because the fetus is like a tumor. However, the latest insights into morning sickness undermine this position. This argument would gain validity if morning sickness was, indeed, an epiphenomenon, resulting from a tug-of-war between mother and fetus. But the data says otherwise. Even though the fetus is genetically distinct from the mother, the mother’s body is designed to do everything it can to protect the fetus, including develop morning sickness and disgust toward potentially harmful foods.

Though this latest understanding about morning sickness may make evolutionary biologists and pro-choice advocates sick, it spews forth new evidence for design. (Sorry, I couldn’t resist.)


What Are the Odds of You Being You?” by Matthew McClure (article)
Placenta Optimization Shows Creator’s Handiwork” by Fazale Rana (article)
Curvaceous Anatomy of Female Spine Reveals Ingenious Obstetric Design” by Virgil Robertson (article)
Does the Childbirth Process Represent Clumsy Evolution or Good Engineering?” by Fazale Rana (article)
The Female Brain: Pregnant with Design” by Fazale Rana (article)
Dietary Differences Separate Humans from Neanderthals” by Fazale Rana (article)


  1. Rachel R. Huxley, “Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy: Its Role in Placental Development,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 95 (May 2000): 779–82, doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(99)00662-6; Daniel M. T. Fessler, Serena J. Eng, and C. David Navarrete, “Elevated Disgust Sensitivity in the First Trimester of Pregnancy: Evidence Supporting the Compensatory Prophylaxis Hypothesis,” Evolution and Human Behavior 26 (July 2005): 344–51, doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.12.001; Samuel M. Flaxman and Paul W. Sherman, “Morning Sickness: Adaptive Cause or Nonadaptive Consequence of Embryo Viability?” The American Naturalist 172 (July 2008): 54–62, doi:10.1086/588081.
Reprinted with permission by the author
Original article at:

The Female Brain: Pregnant with Design



When Jesus saw his mother there, and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to her, “Woman, here is your son.”

–John 19:26

I’ve learned the hard way: It is best to be circumspect when offering commentary about pregnancy, especially when women are around.

So, it’s with some hesitation I bring up the latest scientific insight developed by a team of researchers from Spain. These investigators discovered that pregnancy alters a woman’s brain. In fact, pregnancy reduces her grey matter.1 (Okay Fuz. Hold your tongue. Don’t say what you’re thinking.)

But, as it turns out, the loss of grey matter is a good thing. In fact, it reveals the elegant design of the human brain and adds to the growing evidence of human exceptionalism. This scientific advance also has implications for the pro-life movement.

The Spanish research team was motivated to study brain changes in pregnant women because of the effects that sex hormones have on adolescent brains. During this time, sex hormones cause extensive reorganization of the brain. This process is a necessary part of the neural maturation process. The researchers posited that changes to the female brain should take place, because of the surge of sex hormones during pregnancy. While pregnant, women are exposed to 10 to 15 times the “normal” progesterone levels. During nine months of pregnancy, women are also subjected to more estrogen than the rest of their life when not pregnant.

To characterize the effect of pregnancy on brain structure, the research team employed a prospective study design. They imaged the brains of women who wanted to become pregnant for the first time. Then, they imaged the brains of the subjects once the women had given birth. Finally, they imaged the brains of the subjects two years after birth, if they didn’t become pregnant again. As controls, they imaged the brains of women who had never been pregnant and the brains of the fathers.

The Effects of Pregnancy on Women’s Brains

While the brain’s white matter is unaffected, the researchers found that pregnancy leads to a loss of grey matter that, minimally, lasts up to two years. They also discovered that the grey matter loss was not random or arbitrary. Instead, it occurred in highly specific areas of the brain. In fact, the grey matter loss was so consistent from subject to subject that the researchers could tell if a woman was pregnant or not from brain images alone.

As it turns out, the area of the brain that loses grey matter is the region involved in social cognition that harbors the theory-of-mind neural network. This network allows human beings to display a quality anthropologists call theory of mind. Along with symbolism, our theory-of-mind capacity makes us unique compared to other animals, providing scientific justification for the idea of human exceptionalism. As human beings, we recognize that other humans possess a mind like ours. Because of that recognition, we can anticipate what others are thinking and feeling. Our theory-of-mind capability makes possible complex social interactions characteristic of our species.

Even though the pregnant women lost grey matter, they showed no loss of memory or cognitive ability. The researchers believe that the loss of grey matter stems from synaptic pruning. This process occurs in adolescents and is a vital part of brain development and maturation. Through the loss of grey matter, neural networks form. The research team posits that synaptic pruning in pregnant women establishes a neural network that plays a role in the deep attachment mothers have with their children. This attachment helps mothers anticipate their babies’ needs. The deep social connection between mother and child is critical for human survival, because human infants are so vulnerable at birth and have a prolonged childhood.

In support of this proposal, the researchers found that when they showed the pregnant women pictures of their babies, the brain areas that lost grey matter became active. On the other hand, they saw no corresponding brain activity when the mothers were shown pictures of other babies.

The Case for Human Exceptionalism Mounts

This work highlights the elegant design of human pregnancy and child rearing—features that I take as evidence for a Creator’s handiwork. It is nothing short of brilliant to have the surge of sex hormones during pregnancy, priming the brain to ensure a close attachment between mother and child, at the time of birth and throughout the first few years of childhood.

More importantly, this work adds to the mounting scientific evidence for human exceptionalism. Not only do humans uniquely possess theory of mind, but our theory-of-mind neural network is more complex and sophisticated than previously thought. It is remarkable that this neural network can be adapted and fine-tuned to ensure an intimate mother-infant attachment while maintaining relationships in the midst of complex social surroundings, typical of human interactions.

As an interesting side note: Recent research indicates that for Neanderthals, the area of their brain devoted to maintaining social interactions was much smaller than the corresponding area in modern humans, highlighting our unique and exceptional nature even when compared to the hominids found in the fossil record.2

Pro-Life Implications

In my view, this work also has pro-life implications. I frequently hear pro-choice advocates argue that the fetus is a mass of tissue, just like a tumor. But, this study undermines this view. It is hard to think of a fetus as being just a lump of tissue, when such a sophisticated system is in place during pregnancy to form a neural network (that is, a subset of the theory-of-mind network) in the mother’s brain that generates the special capacity of the mother to bond with the fetus at birth.

It also raises concerns for the health of women who receive abortions. Though speculative, one has to wonder what effect prematurely terminating a pregnancy has on women whose brains have become fine-tuned to bond to the very infants that are destroyed by the abortion.


Placenta Optimization Shows Creator’s Handiwork” by Fazale Rana (article)
Curvaceous Anatomy of the Female Spine Reveals Ingenious Obstetric Design” by Virgil Robertson (article)
Does the Childbirth Process Represent Clumsy Evolution or Good Engineering?” by Fazale Rana (article)
Neanderthal Brains Make Them Unlikely Social Networkers” by Fazale Rana (article)


  1. Elseline Hoekzema et al., “Pregnancy Leads to Long-Lasting Changes in Human Brain Structure,” Nature Neuroscience, published electronically December 19, 2016, doi:10.1038/nn.4458.
  2. Eiluned Pearce, Chris Stringer, and R. I. M. Dunbar, “New Insights into Differences in Brain Organization between Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280 (May 2013): doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0168.
Reprinted with permission by the author
Original article at:

Placenta Optimization Shows Creator’s Handiwork



The Creator of the universe desires an intimate relationship with each of us.

It is one of the more outrageous claims of the Christian faith. And no passage of Scripture expresses the intimacy between Creator and creature more than Psalm 139:13.

A fresh perspective on this passage of Scripture comes from recent work by researchers from Cambridge University in the UK. This study reveals the central role the placenta plays in properly allocating nutritional resources between mother and child, illustrating the intimate care God provided for us through the elegant design of embryological development.1

This research also has important pro-life implications, providing a response to the claim that the fetus is nothing more than a harmful mass of tissue.

Nutritional Demands of the Fetus and the Mother

For a pregnancy to be successful, nutrients must be carefully distributed between the fetus and the mother. Yet sharing nutrients runs contrary to the biological tendencies of the mother and the unborn baby. The fetus has a genetic drive for growth and craves all the nutrients it can get. So does the mother. But for the fetus to grow and develop, the mother must provide it with the nutrients it needs, setting up a potential tug of war between the mother and the developing baby in her womb.

Ironically, if the fetus hoards nutrients excessively, the hoarding can backfire. If the mother doesn’t have access to sufficient nutrients during the pregnancy, it can negatively impact lactation and the mother’s long-term health, which, in turn, compromises her ability to care for the child after birth.

As it turns out, the placenta plays a critical role in managing this trade-off. Instead of being passive tissue that absorbs available nutrients from the mother, the placenta dynamically distributes nutrients between mother and fetus, optimally ensuring the health of both mother and developing baby. To do this, the placenta receives metabolic signals from both the mother and fetus and responds to this input by regulating the nutrient amounts made available to the fetus.

One of the key genes involved in nutrient regulation is called p110α. This gene codes for a protein that integrates the metabolic signals from mother and fetus. The Cambridge University researchers wanted to understand the role that the maternal and fetal versions of this gene play in parsing the nutrient supply between mother and developing baby.

What Happens When p110α Is Defective in Mother and Child?

What happens when p110α is defective in mother and child? To answer this question, the research team used mice as a model system, preparing genetic mutants, so that either the mother or fetus had a defective version of the p110α gene. If the mother had a healthy p110αgene, but the fetus a defective version, the placenta developed abnormally. But in spite of its defective appearance, the placenta compensated so that it would still take up the nutrients the fetus needed to develop. However, if the mother had a defective version of the p110αgene, the placenta (which formed abnormally even though the fetus had a healthy version of the p110α gene) transported fewer nutrients to the fetus.

In adult tissue, the p110α gene plays a role in regulating growth in relationship to nutrient supply and mediates the metabolic effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors. That means that a defective version of this gene models conditions in which the mother’s health is compromised due to disease, poor nutrition, stress, or other factors.

On the basis of this study, it appears that when the mother is healthy, the placenta readily transports nutrients to the fetus and dynamically adjusts, even if it forms abnormally. On the other hand, if the mother’s health is compromised, the placenta restricts nutrient flow to the fetus to ensure the mother’s long-term health, with the prospects that the fetus can still grow and develop.

This insight has important biomedical implications. In the developing world, one in five pregnancy complications involve the placenta. In the developed world, this number is one in eight. The researchers hope that this insight will help them understand the etiologies behind problem pregnancies and also help them identify biomarkers that will alert physicians to problems earlier in the pregnancy.

This work also has important apologetics implications, as well.

Indeed, We Are Fearfully and Wonderfully Made

This work highlights the elegance of embryological development. It seems an exquisite rationale—a biological logic, if you will—undergirds every aspect of development. The optimal way the placenta partitions resources between mother and fetus, carefully managing trade-offs, evinces the handiwork of the Creator, and reveals the Creator’s intimate care for the fetus.

The devastating effects caused by mutations to the p110α gene raises questions about the capacity of evolutionary mechanisms to explain the origin of the reproductive system in placental mammals. Because the placenta is not a passive conduit for nutrients between mother and fetus, the challenges of explaining its genesis via unguided evolutionary process become insurmountable. If the placenta lacks the capability to effectively allocate resources between the mother and fetus—or even if this process operates in a suboptimal manner—the fetus may not survive, or the mother may not be healthy enough to nurse and rear the child once it’s born. In other words, it becomes difficult to imagine how the placenta’s role in embryological development could evolve from an imperfect system to an optimal system under the influence of natural selection because of the critical, dynamic role the placenta plays in embryological development. If this role isn’t properly executed, the child isn’t likely to make it to reproductive age.

Is the Fetus Like a Tumor?

This work also has implications for the pro-life debate. I have often heard pro-choice advocates argue that abortion is not murder, because the fetus is like a tumor. But the work by the scientists from Cambridge University makes this view impossible. Because the placenta dynamically allocates resources between the mother and the fetus in a way that preserves the mother’s health, the fetus cannot be viewed as a tumor robbing the mother of nutrients. Instead, it looks as if the placenta’s function has been designed in such a way to ensure optimal health for both the mother and the fetus. This study also shows that if the mother’s health is in jeopardy, the placenta actually compromises the health of the fetus so that the mother’s health is not unduly harmed by the pregnancy.

Curvaceous Anatomy of the Female Spine Reveals Ingenious Obstetric Design” by Virgil Robertson (article)
What Are the Odds of You Being You?” by Matthew McClure (article)
Morning Sickness May Protect Embryos from Toxins” with Fazale Rana (podcast)


  1. Amanda Sferruzzi-Perri et al., “Maternal and Fetal Genomes Interplay through Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)-p110α Signaling to Modify Placental Resource Allocation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 113 (October 2016): 11255–60, doi:10.1073/pnas.1602012113.
Reprinted with permission by the author
Original article at:’s-handiwork